What is Primary Research? Tutorial for Students Working on a Research Paper or Project

hi guys I’m Gabby Wallace this is go natural English and in this video I’m talking about kinds of research specifically what is primary research there’s primary and there’s secondary research so in this video we’re going to look at what is primary research examples things to think about questions to ask yourself let’s get started so first of all what is primary research when you think primary think direct primary research is research that the author of a research paper carries out themselves so if I am writing a research paper I can do primary research on my topic so for example let’s say I’m writing a research paper on the best kind of coffee so what is the best coffee in the neighborhood where I work so I might decide to produce a survey so I’ve created a survey asking people about what is their favorite kind of cop and I might decide that my subject test pool is going to be a hundred people so I would find out how to reach 100 people maybe by email or maybe face-to-face if I just stop people in the streets and give them a survey that’s one kinds of primary research I’m directly conducting that research and I will take the results I’ll add and want to find my results so this is quantitative research and I can use that information in my research paper another kind of primary research a method that you could use is an interview you can interview one person so it would be a one-on-one interview or you could conduct a small group interview you can conduct one-on-one interviews with many people asking the same question and that way it’s more like a survey but an interview is where you go more in depth and you can ask more detailed questions and you’re looking for quotes instead of answers yes or no more a rating so an interview would be more on the qualitative side of research so because I’m directly involved in the interview and I’m directly gathering that research is primary research so we have surveys interviews another kind of interview would be a focus group often used for marketing research when you gather a small group of people together maybe five people six people and you have them discuss a topic I might have them discuss their favorite kind of coffee and that would give me some information depending on the questions I asked them to discuss that would give me some information for my paper another kind of primary research is observation again let’s use the example of writing a paper about the best kind of coffee I propose in a few different cafes in the area and observe their customers so I might take notes on specific categories that I’ve predetermined like how many people come in to buy coffee at a certain time of the day what type of people go to that cafe and what kind of coffee do they have and so on so you create the categories or the questions the information that you’re looking for and then you go in observe it last another kind of primary research is where you use pre-existing documents such as letters journals could be a census report it could be a lot of different kinds of information but you use that raw information so it can also be a photograph it could be a song so an audio file or video any kind of raw material and you produce new weighting from face of that material another example that I liked was you could watch let’s say record and watch three commercials on major TV channels and look at those commercials observe them for gender roles so maybe you’re researching gender roles in media and you use those commercials to inform your research that is primary research because although the commercials already exist you are analyzing that we are observing them and analyzing them to make your own conclusions and your own research so that’s the new information okay so you can do your own primary research as an author you should also be able to recognize when a source of information that you’re reading may be an article is primary research done by the author that you’re reading but if the author explains how he did the experiment the methods he use and shows us findings there should be some rapport with numbers or explanations sharing exactly how he did the experiment can see that that was primary research done in that article that you’re reading but that’s not your primary research we’re reading someone else’s primary research but should be able to recognize that it is primary research if you want to create your own primary research you should ask yourself some questions like what is it that you want to discover what is your research question how are you going to find that information what questions will lead you to that information who do you need to speak with and how are you going to gain access to that kind of person also considered do you have any bias related to the topic that you’re researching we all have biases it’s natural because we all have different experiences we’re all from certain groups or culture and age range etc so consider it how can you make sure that your research will not be biased can you ask a group of peers to review it can you discuss your survey questions or your interview questions before you conduct your research so if you can have another set of eyes or another set of ears listen to your ideas before you go out and spend time doing your research that could help you from making the mistake of asking a biased question okay an example of a biased question it might be worded in a way that gets your participant to to answer in a certain way it might persuade them for example if I’m asking a question about a cafe or their favorite kind of coffee if I said oh I love bold coffee don’t you that kind of question is kind of persuading that person to agree with you so I wouldn’t want to express my opinion and I wouldn’t want to ask the question in a way that makes the person feel like they should so I might ask a more neutral question like what kind of coffee do you prefer bold or mild group what kind of coffee do you prefer a bold or a lighter brewed coffee if you’re creating a survey or an interview make sure your questions are short and to the points if it’s a survey it’s best to keep it under two pages because this is something that people are probably volunteering to do a lot of people are busy they don’t like to stop and take time out of their day just to do a survey so hopefully you can also specifically target a certain group of people and they might actually be interested in your survey if it’s specific enough so if I’m doing research on coffee they dedicated target people who are really interested in coffee and they might actually enjoy taking my survey it’s to endless explanation about primary research I’d like to quickly go over some of the positives and negatives of doing your own primary research the good things are as a researcher you can create new information that can inform your research topic you can make sure that you get information you need as you’re creating new information so you have total control over your survey your interview your observation and you pick out the information that you need for your behavior so that is an excellent it very helpful now on the negative side it can take more effort or time or work because you have to design your survey design your interview or structure your observation you have to figure out where you’re going to observe how to gain access to that area or the group of people we want to observe interview or survey so it takes a little time to set up it can also cost money like if you need to print paper surveys and even when you do survey people they may not always want to respond so all in all it can take a little bit more time planning and efforts but there are advantages which I’ve said like you have a lot of control and you can get new and specific information we’ll help you out with your paper and can also give you a name as a researcher if you’re finding out the information and you can help others along the way so I hope that this helped you don’t understand what primary research is how you might go about doing some primary research of your own and some of the pros and cons of the primary research good luck with your research papers and I’ll talk to you soon

Francis Bacon’s “The Essays” 22

you ready to continue running it going no coffee today you see we’re at 22 of cunning we take cunning for a sinister or crooked wisdom and certainly there’s a great difference between a cunning man and a wise man not only in point of honesty button point of ability maybe that can pack the cards it cannot play well so there are some that are good and it can’t in canvases and factions that are otherwise weak men again it is one thing to understand persons and another thing to understand matters for many are perfect and men’s humors that are not greatly capable of the real part of business which is the constitution of one that have studied men more than books some men are fitted for practice than for counsel and they are good but in their own alley turn them to new men and they have lost their aim so it was the old rule to know a fool from a wise man Matea emboss new dos ad Ignotus at the deadest send both naked to those who do not know and you will see dodging Slayers have sweets the saying to our stiffest one of the philosophers was asked what a wise men what a wise man deferred my fool he answered it’s in the both naked to those that know they’re not and you shall perceive it’s a funny idea the scares hold for them I’ll reread that sentence okay I’ll start you turnips new men and they have lost their aim so it’s the old rule to know a fool from a wise men the same dust scarce hold for them and because these cunning men are like haberdashers a dealer in a small if you learn small wares pertaining to dress such as tape thread ribbon etc a small wears it is not a miss to set forth their shop it is a point of cunning to wait upon him with whom you speak with your eye as the Jesuits give it in precept further be many wise men that have secret hearts and transparent countenances if this would be done with a demure a basing of your eye sometimes as a jilted Jesuits also do use another is when you have anything to obtain of present dispatch you entertain and amuse the party with whom you deal with some other discourse that he’d be not too much awake to make objections my new counselor and secretary that never came to Queen Elizabeth of England with bills to sign but he would always first put her into some discourse of a state as she bought the less mine to the bills the like surprise may be made by moving things when the party is in haste and can’t stay to consider advisedly of that is moved if a man would cross a business that he doubts some other would handsomely and effectively move let him pretend to wish it well move it himself in such sort as my foil at the breaking off in the midst of that one was about to say as if he took himself up breeds the greater appetite in him with whom he confer to no more and because it works better when anything seems to be gotten from you my question then if you offered yourself you may lay a bait for a question why shine another Vistage in countenance then you are want and to to the end to give occasion for the party to ask what the matter is of the change as in Hemnes did and I had no object before that time been sad before the king and things that are a tender and I’m pleasing it is good to break the ice so that terms been around for a long time by by some whose words are of less weight and to preserve the more weighty voice to come in as my chance so that he may be asked the question upon the other speech as narcosis did in relating to Claudius the marriage of Messalina and Sidious and things that a man would not be seen in himself it is a point of cunning to borrow the name of the world as to say the world says or there is a speech abroad many one that when he refer letter you would put that which was most material in the PostScript I said as if it had been a by matter in another but when he came to have a speech he would pass over it what that that he intended most and go forth and come back again speak of it as a had that he’d almost forgot some procure themselves to be surprised as such times that you dislike the party that would work upon will suddenly come upon them and to be found with a letter in their hand or doing some at which they are not accustomed to the end they may have to the end they may be opposed of those things which of themselves their desire stutter here’s a point of cunning to let follow those words in immense Oh name which would have another man learn and use and thereupon take advantage I knew too that four competitors for the secretaries place in Queen Elizabeth’s time and it kept good quarter between themselves and would confer one with another upon business and the one of them said that to be secretary but to be secretary in the declination of a monarchy was a ticklish thing and that he did not affect it the other straight caught up those words and discoursed with their verse of his friends that he had no reason to desire to be secretary in the declination of a monarchy the first man took hold of it and found means it was told the clean who care enough the declination of a monarchy took it so ill as she would never after hear the other suit there’s a cunning which when England call the toning of the cat in the pad which is and that which a man says to another he lays it as if another had set it to him and then to say we and to say truth it is not too easy when such a matter passed between two to make it appear from which of them it first moved and began there’s a way that some men have it is a way that some men have to glance and dart at others by just to find themselves by negatives as to say this I do not as Tigellinus did towards Boris sign-on develops best said in equivalent to town in Paris simpliciter Specter that he had not expectations from different quarters but looked simply to the safety of the Empire so having readiness so many tales and stories as there is nothing they would insinuate but they can wrap it into a tail which severa those to keep themselves more in guard and to make others carry it with more pleasure it is a good point of cunning for man to shape the answer he would have in his own words and propositions fourth makes the other party stick the less it is strange how long some men will lie in wait to speak somewhat they dust the desire to say and how far they will fetch and how many other matters they will be over to come near it it’s a thing of great patience but yet of much use a sudden bold and unexpected question that many times surprise in men and lay him open but to him having changed his name and walking in Pauls another suddenly came behind him and called him by his true name where at straight waist he looked back but these small wears and petty points of cunning are infinite and for a good deed to make a list of him for that nothing does more hurt in a state and that cunning men pass the wise but certainly some are hard that know the resorts and Falls of business that cannot sink into the main of it like a house that have convenient stairs and entries never if our room therefore you shall see therefore you shall see them find out pretty losses in the conclusion but there are no way is able to examine or debate matters in it commonly they take advantage of our inability and be thought widths of direction some bills rather upon abusing of others and as we now say putting tricks upon them met upon soundness of their own proceedings but Solomon says prudence adverted add grasses suus still toss directed add dose the prudent man works to a steps the fool turn decided to the seats well I think that’ll be it for today I probably won’t record anymore today I have to prepare for the game of D&D; that I’m hosting so if you enjoyed this please leave a like so I know maybe subscribe tell friends share and it can be great solo

How to Write Different type of Essays?

back friends to another presentation of my course in this video I should tell you about different types of essays and how to write them but before I start can you tell me what is an essay okay let me tell you an essay is a short piece of original non-fiction writing simple right most students don’t know how many types of essays are there and that’s why they got satisfactory marks in their examination and assignments in this video I should tell you about different types of essays and also how you can write them so let’s start different types of essays in academic writing so generally there are five different types of essays as following one persuasive essay two descriptive essay three analytical essay four narrative essay five informative essay there is also another kind essay that is argumentative essay but it is most like the persuasive essay so I have excluded argumentative one let’s proceed to the next slide of this presentation persuasive essay persuasive essay is a type of essay where you have to give your opinion about the topic you are being provided with in this type of essay you have to convince the reader about your opinion and provide some evidence for the support of your essay the example of possessive essay does social media create isolation or is society too dependent on technology how to write a persuasive essay persuasive essay is basically your opinion about a certain topic or issue for example when you asked about writing on the social media creates isolation then you have to put your views on either supporting or negating the topic you can put your views on this topic that although social media is a great way to remain connected with your childhood friends that are residing all over the world but still excess use of it is harmful for the psychological and physical health of any person persuasive writing must feed to a precise conclusion about the topic and have to convince the readers about your opinion and its validity remember that you have to provide something else in your conclusion don’t provide the summary of what you have written in the main body of your essay so let’s proceed to the next presentation narrative essay narrative essay is a type of essay where you are being asked to narrate a story just like writing a short story or novel narrative essay mist has a beginning part and middle part and finally an end part examples of narrative essay what if I could go back in time or my favorite superpower narrative essays are actually provided to examine your power of thinking and your imagination so let’s proceed to the next slide how to write a narrative essay narrative essay is basically like a test of your imagination and explanation skills for example when you are asked about writing what would you do if you could go back in time then you would probably first have to think about the beginning a middle and then an end part of a narrative essay you can choose a beginning part that you would like to go back in the school days when you met with your first crush then you can narrate the whole story what would you do after meeting her at school while creating a middle and then the end part precisely sometimes you would also be asked to write about biography of a famous personality in this case you can search the internet and do thorough research on that person and then provide a precise introduction and main body part and conclusion to your essay then after thorough analysis of the biography of that person you can simply write a narrative essay about that person descriptive essay descriptive essay is a type of essay where you have to describe about a person place or thing that you like most or you would be asked to write about any topic after doing a thorough research your descriptive essay must contain details that you know about the topic you can easily recognize a descriptive essay from its title examples of a descriptive essay are describe your favorite personality or old model or describe your best summer vacation how to write a descriptive essay a descriptive essays your test about how effectively you can observe and explain your experience is about a person place topic or thing you can easily recognize a descriptive essay by the question like describe your vacation or something like that for example if you asked to write about your favorite summer vacation then you have to write your views memory and imagination to describe that enjoyable event in your life you can write about how you enjoy walking up the mountains while you have visited the famous hill station or how you enjoyed the ride on a boat while visiting a lake sometimes you are also asked to describe some events like a sunset raining or something like that and here you can explain the color shape and size of clouds and environment during the sunset etc now fourth one is analytical essay an analytical essay generally refers to a type of essay where we have to analyze something all we have to do some judgments and evaluations on the basis of the subject sometimes some graphs images or and other kinds of information are also provided to you by the essay briefing document in other words you can say that you have to analyze the topic and write about it in brief analytical essay generally starts from words like why or what examples of analytical essay what causes love-at-first-sight or why do people lie how to write an analytical essay when you are going to start your analytical essay then first you have to analyze the literature images graphs and other kinds of information associated with it then you have to provide a strong thesis statement to your reader once you make a strong thesis statement then you can support the thesis with the proofs available in the literature and the relevant information also provide your opinions on the thesis statement for example when you write about what causes love at first sight then you can use your mind and tell the reader that love at first sight is just like an intuition then you can provide a thesis statement that love at first sight is only an intuition of the psychology of the human being that got attracted to the beauty of a person however it is only attraction in most of the cases while writing an analytical essay you must remember that it is not only summery and you have to put some strong evidence and points in front of the reader to make your essay more precise once you put your thesis statement the you also have to provide the conclusion in support of your thesis statement so finally the fifth one is informative essay informative essays where you have to inform the reader about anything that you like anything or acquainted with or make yourself acquainted with after the research so in this type of essay you have to inform the reader about anything that you know or anything you are familiar with just like your favorite sports or your favorite TV show your favorite movies etc you have to inform your reader about your knowledge or expertise so that you should convince the reader that you have got a perfect information on that issue or a topic informative essay includes the details that you know as a writer on the subject and you must pass the details accurately to your reader examples of informative essay write an essay about domestic violence or about poverty and its effects how to write an informative essay writing an informative essay becomes easy when you are acquainted with the topic for example suppose that you have to write an essay about your favorite sports then you can easily write an informative essay about your favorite sports like soccer however you must remember that your reader may or may not be much acquainted with your favorite sports it would be possible that his favorite sports is not soccer or soccer is not a favorite sports in his or her country so he may or may not have a precise knowledge of what soccer is so you have to write in a simple way about why you like soccer and what are the some common rules of playing this sport so that you can convince the reader that soccer is your favorite sport and you have an enough information on the topic meanwhile if you are asked to write about something you are not acquainted with then you first do a thorough research on the topic from the internet and other sources and then when you think that you have enough information then you can write an essay on the topic so this was the presentation to teach you about the main types of essays you can refer to the main page of our website for more information

5 Idioms to Use in Your IELTS TOEFL Essay

hi welcome to right to top comm I’m Adam in today’s video I’m going to give you five idioms to show dilemma or to show the two sides of a choice or an option when you have to choose between an action or a situation or even a thing when you’re talking about a thing you can show the good and the bad sides of it or if you have a choice to make good and bad consequences results etc so these idioms are very useful especially for those of you who will be taking a language test IELTS TOEFL CAE whatever and you need to write a an essay about agree or disagree topics or show the advantages and disadvantages of something these are very good idioms because they show you both sides and therefore you mix your the way you structure your essay a little bit easier as well plus idioms are very important for getting a high score on these tests the greatest want to see real English natural English but natural English uses idioms and if you can use idioms correctly and appropriately in the context you’re getting the extra points okay so let’s look at our first idiom there’s going to be five of them they’re all more or less in a similar context but different meanings the first one is a catch-22 now what is a catch-22 mean generally speaking it’s when you have two options or you want this or you want that but to get this first you need that but to get that first you need this right so the best example in the one I gave you here with a sentence is finding your first job now to get a job you need experience but to get experience you need to have a job so let’s look at this sample sentence new graduates often face a catch-22 situation when they look to enter the job market since they lack work experience many employers won’t hire them yet this rejection denies them the opportunity to gain this experience so how can you get experience if nobody will hire you how will anybody hire you if you don’t have experience so that’s a catch-22 okay lots of these examples you can use this in your essays easily to a double-edged sword now a sword of course has two edges it cuts this way it cuts this way but basically a double-edged sword means a situation or a thing that has both a positive and a negative side to it so look at the example communicating via the internet has become a double-edged sword so we’re talking about communicating through the internet good bad on the one hand it allows people to communicate quickly with anyone around the world good on the other hand it opens the door to cyber bullies and haters who can spew the negativity negativity to a large audience often anonymously so the internet most people think is a very good thing but it’s also a bad thing let’s people communicate all over the world it lets haters do what haters do right so the Internet two sides to it now I put this as 2a this is connected we can say something is a double-edged sword or something cuts both ways the meaning is essentially the same it has a negative and a positive meaning Phil chose a salary over an hourly wage knowing that this decision cuts both ways he’ll have a secure paycheck every month but he won’t be paid extra for overtime or holiday work so he wants he had a choice you can continue getting his hourly wage and every hour he works he gets paid for or he can get a set annual salary now the good thing about the salary every month he knows exactly what kind of paycheck he’s getting he can make a budget what’s bad is that if he has to work overtime or if yet he’s asked to come in on holidays he doesn’t get paid extra for those hours because he gets a salary the salary doesn’t change if he was on hourly wages he works overtime he gets more money but then during the slow period when there are fewer hours to work he gets less money so it cuts both ways now notice that in both examples for this one and double-edged sword you have to show me that contrasting link in the double-edged sword example I had on the one hand on the other hand to show the contrast here I have but right so if you have but you’re showing that you’re going to show the contrast of whatever came first if you gave the positive first but the negative if you gave the negative first but the positive make sure you show both sides now this is the problem this is the danger with using idioms if you don’t use them appropriately in your essays you’re going to lose points if you’re going to say something cuts both ways show me both ways if you’re going to say something is a double-edged sword show me both sides of that sort to make sure you’re using the idiom correctly between a rock and a hard place so this is a situation in which both or all options are bad so our rock is hard a hard place is hard so if you’re between a hard place and a hard place you have no good options okay the manager found himself between a rock and a hard place when he had to either lose a net his best salesperson or promote her and anger most of his senior staff who don’t like her so if he chooses to keep her he makes all his staff angry if he chooses to let her go he loses his best salesperson bad choice bad choice so he’s in a very difficult situation he’s in a situation between a rock and a hard place where everything is going to turn out badly then damned if you do damned if you don’t so this isn’t the same idea doesn’t matter which choice he makes the people who are responsible for him the people who judge him will damn him they’ll say bad things about him he made a bad choice either choice he makes is a bad choice and they will tell himself the manager also realized that he was damned if he did damned if he didn’t lose a net as sales would certainly drop in the short term so even if he kept her sales with job because the staff would be angry if he let her go sales would drop because she’s the best salesperson and his bosses the managers bosses supervisors will be angry with him either way he’s damned if he does there if he doesn’t but then there’s the lesser of two evils so you have bad choice bad choice so when you have two bad choices you’re going to choose the one that’s less bad if such an option exists I’m using the same scenario here so he finally this is he the manager finally decided that letting a net go would be the lesser of the two evils as an angry staff is a less productive staff and one person no matter how good can eventually be replaced so he decided okay bad situation bad situation but this one is less bad because either way I’m losing money or the company is losing money but she can eventually be replaced I’ll find another good salesperson but if I have the whole staff angry productivity goes down now the key here when you’re explaining the lesser of two evils make sure you’re you’re explaining why it’s the lesser of two don’t just say he chose this because it’s the lesser of the two evils what made it lesser what made it less bad than the other option if you don’t explain that then you really haven’t used the idiom correctly okay so there you have the five idioms the key is again make sure that you’re using them in the right context if you need to show both sides like double-edged sword cuts both ways etc make sure that you show both sides the catch-22 make sure that it’s very obviously obvious that the two options are conflicting and show how they are conflicting and damned if you do damned if you don’t again that should be pretty obvious it’s self-explanatory but make sure you explain why the lesser evil is the lesser evil now if you have any questions about any of these idioms please come to my Facebook page or Twitter or Instagram or go to my website right to top com ask your questions of course you can ask them below here at YouTube if you like this video please subscribe to my youtube channel there will be plenty of more plenty more videos to come and if you liked it please give me a thumbs up and I’ll see you again very soon bye bye